Cython 0.23 发布，此版本相比第二个测试版本改进很小，还有一些 bug 修复。
* PEP 492 (async/await) 和 PEP 448 (star-unpacking generalizations)
* 支持 C++ 分配和 bool() 操作符
* PEP 492 (async/await) was implemented.
* PEP 448 (Additional Unpacking Generalizations) was implemented.
* Support for coverage.py 4.0+ can be enabled by adding the plugin
“Cython.Coverage” to the “.coveragerc” config file.
* Annotated HTML source pages can integrate (XML) coverage reports.
* Tracing is supported in “nogil“ functions/sections and module init
* When generators are used in a Cython module and the module imports the
modules “inspect” and/or “asyncio”, Cython enables interoperability by
patching these modules during the import to recognise Cython’s internal
generator and coroutine types. This can be disabled by C compiling the
module with “-D CYTHON_PATCH_ASYNCIO=0″ or “-D CYTHON_PATCH_INSPECT=0″
* When generators or coroutines are used in a Cython module, their types
are registered with the “Generator“ and “Coroutine“ ABCs in the
“collections“ or “collections.abc“ stdlib module at import time to
enable interoperability with code that needs to detect and process Python
generators/coroutines. These ABCs were added in CPython 3.5 and are
available for older Python versions through the “backports_abc“ module
on PyPI. See https://bugs.python.org/
constant Python floats and small integers are faster.
* Binary and/or/xor/rshift operations with small constant Python integers
* When called on generator expressions, the builtins “all()“, “any()“,
“dict()“, “list()“, “set()“, “sorted()“ and “unicode.join()“
avoid the generator iteration overhead by inlining a part of their
functionality into the for-loop.
* Keyword argument dicts are no longer copied on function entry when they
are not being used or only passed through to other function calls (e.g.
in wrapper functions).
* The “PyTypeObject“ declaration in “cpython.object“ was extended.
* The builtin “type“ type is now declared as PyTypeObject in source,
allowing for extern functions taking type parameters to have the correct
C signatures. Note that this might break code that uses “type“ just
for passing around Python types in typed variables. Removing the type
declaration provides a backwards compatible fix.
* “wraparound()“ and “boundscheck()“ are available as no-ops in pure
* Const iterators were added to the provided C++ STL declarations.
* Smart pointers were added to the provided C++ STL declarations.
Patch by Daniel Filonik.
* “NULL“ is allowed as default argument when embedding signatures.
This fixes ticket 843.
* When compiling with “–embed“, the internal module name is changed to
“__main__“ to allow arbitrary program names, including those that would
be invalid for modules. Note that this prevents reuse of the generated
C code as an importable module.
* External C++ classes that overload the assignment operator can be used.
Patch by Ian Henriksen.
* Support operator bool() for C++ classes so they can be used in
* Calling “yield from” from Python on a Cython generator that returned a
value triggered a crash in CPython. This is now being worked around.
* Language level 3 did not enable true division (a.k.a. float division)
for integer operands.
* Functions with fused argument types that included a generic ‘object’
fallback could end up using that fallback also for other explicitly
listed object types.
* Relative cimports could accidentally fall back to trying an absolute
cimport on failure.
* The result of calling a C struct constructor no longer requires an
intermediate assignment when coercing to a Python dict.
* C++ exception declarations with mapping functions could fail to compile
when pre-declared in .pxd files.
* “cpdef void“ methods are now permitted.
* “abs(cint)“ could fail to compile in MSVC and used sub-optimal code
in C++. Patch by David Vierra, original patch by Michael Enßlin.
* Buffer index calculations using index variables with small C integer
types could overflow for large buffer sizes.
Original patch by David Vierra.
* C unions use a saner way to coerce from and to Python dicts.
* When compiling a module “foo.pyx“, the directories in “sys.path“
are no longer searched when looking for “foo.pxd“.
Patch by Jeroen Demeyer.
* Memory leaks in the embedding main function were fixed.
Original patch by Michael Enßlin.
* Some complex Python expressions could fail to compile inside of finally
* Unprefixed ‘str’ literals were not supported as C varargs arguments.
* Fixed type errors in conversion enum types to/from Python. Note that
this imposes stricter correctness requirements on enum declarations.
* Changed mangling scheme in header files generated by “cdef api“
* Installation under CPython 3.3+ no longer requires a pass of the
2to3 tool. This also makes it possible to run Cython in Python
3.3+ from a source checkout without installing it first.
Patch by Petr Viktorin.
* “jedi-typer.py“ (in “Tools/“) was extended and renamed to
“jedityper.py“ (to make it importable) and now works with and
requires Jedi 0.9. Patch by Tzer-jen Wei.
准确说Cython是单独的一门语言，专门用来写在Python里面import用的扩展库。实际上Cython的语法基本上跟Python一致，而 Cython有专门的“编译器”先将 Cython代码转变成C（自动加入了一大堆的C-Python API），然后使用C编译器编译出最终的Python可调用的模块。